1,2-Dichloroethane: Chlorine added to acetylene forms 1,2-dichloroethylene, used primarily as a feedstock for vinyl chloride monomer, which, in turn, is the monomer for the widely used plastic, polyvinyl chloride.

From: Handbook of Industrial Hydrocarbon Processes, 2011

Add to Mendeley

Liquid – Membrane Filters

Aloke Kumar Ghoshal, Prabirkumar Saha, in Progress in Filtration and Separation, 2015 Choice of Solvent

Dichloroethane (C2H4Cl2) is found to be a good solvent for the extraction of LS with a distribution coefficient of 21.5 followed by carbon tetrachloride (8.5) and chloroform (1.25). Other organic solvents show negligible extraction of LS. It has also been observed that the solubility of LS is very low in absence of carrier agent even for dichloroethane. Hence, it is evident that mere solution diffusion is not enough for LS transport; some facilitation is required for it. On the other hand, it was observed that coconut oil could be used as an important alternative for solvent in lieu of toxic organic solvent (Chakrabarty et al., 2010b). It was also observed that LS is highly soluble in coconut oil even without any carrier agent. This fact augments the philosophy of green technology in LM-based operation. Nevertheless, addition of carrier agent (TOA) reduces the time for reaching equilibrium extraction.

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Process Design

In Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries (Fourth Edition), 2012

11.11.6 Ethylene Dichloride

A relevant code for ethylene dichloride, or 1,2-dichloroethane, is the Code of Practice for Chemicals with Major Hazards: Ethylene Dichloride (CIA, 1975 PA13). Accounts are also given by V.L. Stevens (1979) and Rossberg et al. (1986).

Ethylene dichloride is made by the liquid phase chlorination of ethylene. It is used principally for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by cracking the ethylene dichloride to vinyl chloride and hydrogen chloride. Usually, the latter is then reacted in an oxychlorination process to produce more vinyl chloride.

Ethylene dichloride is a liquid with a normal boiling point of 84.4°C. It has a low solubility in water. Ethylene dichloride is flammable, the flammable range being 6–16%. The flash point is 13°C (closed cup) or 18°C (open cup).

Ethylene dichloride is toxic. It has a long-term maximum exposure limit of 5 ppm and carries the ‘Skin’ notation. Concentrations of about 3% can produce nausea, drowsiness, and stupor. It is detectable by odor at a concentration of 50–100 ppm. The decomposition products of ethylene dichloride in a fire include hydrogen chloride, which is toxic.

Plant handling ethylene dichloride is usually constructed in mild steel. Mild steel is suitable for dry ethylene dichloride and also for wet saturated ethylene dichloride below 50°C, provided the aqueous phase is alkaline. But at temperatures above 80°C wet ethylene dichloride undergoes hydrolysis, forms acid, and rapidly corrodes mild steel. Transfer of ethylene dichloride may be affected by pumping or inert gas padding.

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Halogen Derivatives

Christian Vargel, http://www.corrosion-aluminium.com, in Corrosion of Aluminium, 2004

Ethane derivatives

ADR numbers

Monochloroethane (ethyl chloride) CH3CH2Cl [1037]

1,1-Dichloroethane (ethylene chloride) CH3CHCl2 [2362]

1,1, I-Trichloroethane CCl3CH3 [2831]

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane CHCl2CHCl2 [1702]

Pentachloroethane CCl3CHCl2 [1669]

Action on aluminium

At room temperature and in the absence of moisture, these products have no action on aluminium. Some of them are stored or transported in aluminium vessels. Aluminium drums are used for drying hexachloroethane C2C16.

In the presence of humidity, hydrochloric acid will form by hydrolysis, leading to pitting corrosion.

As soon as the temperature exceeds 50°C, the risk of decomposition of these solvents increases with temperature and with the number of chlorine atoms. The decrease in thickness may reach 1 mm per year in dichloromethane, and 1–10 mm per year in trichloromethane, depending on the alloy [9]. Aluminium is attacked in contact with hexachloromethane at 60°C and will not resist this product in liquid form (melting point 180°C).

The reaction of these chlorine derivatives with aluminium is exothermic and may be explosive. It takes off after an incubation period, the duration of which cannot be predicted and may vary from a few minutes to a few hundred or even thousand hours [10]. Daylight can catalyse the reaction with aluminium and thus lead to severe damage to storage containers made in aluminium [11].

Hence, the use of aluminium equipment in contact with these products is not recommended above 50°C.

Vapours of these derivatives are not aggressive, even in the presence of humidity. For example, humid air at 50% relative humidity containing 300 g.m-3 ethylene chloride has no action on aluminium.

These solvents need to be stabilised [12] when degreasing parts in aluminium alloys. Any metallic particles (such as turnings) must be regularly eliminated from the degreasing bath.

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Materials for heterogeneous object 3D printing

Jiquan Yang, ... Feng Zhang, in Multi-Material 3D Printing Technology, 2021 Preparation of conductive polylactic acid material

The process of preparing conductive PLA material is as follows:


Dissolve polylactic acid in dichloroethane at a concentration of 5%.


Add carbon nanotubes and stir well.


Add a coupling agent and stir under ultrasonic for 30 min to 1 h.


Let the dichloroethane evaporate and dry the residue to form material flakes in a vacuum drying oven, and then cool down and pulverize.


Weigh the pulverized product according to the set formulation ratio, and transfer it to a high-speed mixer for 1 min.


Melt and knead the mixture in a screw extruder, cool down in a water tank, and pull into a filament with a diameter of 1.75±0.2 mm to obtain a conductive polylactic acid composites.

The ranges of mass percentage of each preparation composition are as follows: 75%–90% of polylactic acid, 0.5%–5% of carbon nanotubes, 0.01%–0.05% of coupling agent, 1%–5% of compatibilizer, 0.3%–0.6% of antioxidant, 0.1%–5% of toughening agent, 0.5%–2% of nucleating agent, and 0.5%–2% of plasticizer, the sum of the mass percentages of the above components is 100%.

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Richard P. Pohanish, in Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), 2015

Use Type

Fumigant, Insecticide

CAS Number



C2H4Cl2; ClCH2CH2Cl


1,2-Bichloroethane; Dichloremulsion; Di-chlor-mulsion; α,β-Dichloroethane; sym-Dichloroethane; 1,2-Dichloroethane; Dichloroethylene; 1,2-Dicloroetano (Spanish); EDC; ENT 1,656; Ethane, 1,2-dichloro-; Ethane dichloride; Ethylene chloride; 1,2-Ethylene dichloride; Freon 150; Glycol dichloride; NCI-C00511

Trade Names


Chemical class

Chlorinated hydrocarbon



California DPR Chemical Code


HSDB Number


UN/NA & ERG Number


RTECS® Number


EC Number

203-458-1 [Annex I Index No.: 602-012-00-7]


Not approved for use in EU countries[115]. Not registered for use in the U.S. When mixed with carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride is used as a grain fumigant for bulk storage in bags, sealed containers, bins or on floors. In recent years, 1,2-dichloroethane has found wide use in the manufacture of ethylene glycol, diaminoethylene, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, viscose rayon, styrenebutadiene rubber, and various plastics. It is a solvent for resins, asphalt, bitumen, rubber, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester, and paint; a degreaser in the engineering, textile and petroleum industries; and an extracting agent for soybean oil and caffeine. It is also used as an antiknock agent in gasoline, a pickling agent and a dry-cleaning agent. It has found use in photography, xerography, water softening, and also in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and varnishes.

U.S. Maximum Allowable Residue Levels for Fumigants, including ethylene dichloride [40 CFR 193.225, 180.521, 180.522]

grain, cereal, milled fractions 125 ppm; corn, field, grits 125 ppm; rice, cracked 125 ppm.

Regulatory Authority and Advisory Information

Carcinogenicity[83]: IARC: Animal Sufficient Evidence; Human Inadequate Evidence, possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2b, 1999; EPA: Sufficient evidence from animal studies; inadequate evidence or no useful data from epidemiologic studies; NTP: 12th Report on Carcinogens, 2011: Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen; NIOSH: Potential occupational carcinogen

California Proposition 65 Chemical: Cancer (1/1/1987)

Health Advisory: Mutagen, Developmental/Reproductive Toxin, Skin irritant/sensitizer

Clean Air Act: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Title I, Part A, Section 112)

Clean Water Act: Section 311 Hazardous Substances/RQ 40CFR117.3 (same as CERCLA, see below); 40CFR423, appendix A, Priority Pollutants; Section 313 Water Priority Chemicals (57FR41331, 9/9/92); Toxic Pollutant (Section 401.15)

U.S. EPA Hazardous Waste Number (RCRA No.): U077, D028

RCRA Toxicity Characteristic (Section 261.24), Maximum Concentration of Contaminants, regulatory level, 0.5 mg/L

RCRA 40CFR268.48; 61FR15654, Universal Treatment Standards: Wastewater (mg/L), 0.21; Non-wastewater (mg/kg), 6.0

RCRA 40CFR264, appendix 9; TSD Facilities Ground Water Monitoring List. Suggested test method(s) (PQL μg/L): 8010 (0.5); 8240 (5)

Safe Drinking Water Act: MCL, 0.005 mg/L; MCLG, zero; Regulated chemical (47 FR 9352)

CERCLA Reportable Quantity (RQ): 100 lb (45.4 kg)

US DOT Regulated Marine Pollutant (49CFR172.101, appendix B)

US DOT 49CFR172.101, Inhalation Hazardous Chemical

Rotterdam Convention Annex III [Chemicals Subject to the Prior Informed Consent Procedure (PIC)]

European/International Regulations: Hazard Symbol: F, T; risk phrases: R45; F11; R22-36/37/38; safety phrases: S2; S53; S45 (see Appendix 1)

WGK (German Aquatic Hazard Class): 3-Severe hazard to waters


1,2-Dichloroethane is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid. A pleasant, chloroform-like odor, and a sweet taste. Decomposes slowly: turns dark and acidic on contact with air, moisture, and light. The Odor Threshold is 100 ppm. Molecular weight = 98.96; Specific gravity (H2O:1) = 1.245; Boiling point = 83.5°C; Freezing/Melting point = –35.7°C; Vapor pressure = 75 mmHg @ 23.70°C; Flash point = 13.33°C (cc)[17]; Autoignition temperature = 413°C. Explosive limits: LEL = 6.2%; UEL = 16.0%. Hazard Identification (based on NFPA-704 M Rating System): Health 2, Flammability 3, Reactivity 0. Soluble in water; solubility = 0.869 g/100 mL @ 20°C.


Forms explosive mixture with air. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers and caustics; chemically active metals such as magnesium or aluminum powder, sodium and potassium, alkali metals, alkali amides; liquid ammonia. Decomposes to vinyl chloride and HCl above 600°C. Attacks plastics, rubber, coatings. Attacks many metals in presence of water.

Permissible Exposure Limits in Air

Conversion factor: 1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m3 @ 25°C & 1 atm

NIOSH IDLH: 50 ppm; a potential human carcinogen.

OSHA PEL: 50 ppm TWA; 100 ppm Ceiling Concentration; 200 ppm [5 minute maximum peak in any 3 hours]. For Construction and Shipyards: 50 ppm/200 mg/m3 TWA

NIOSH REL: 1 ppm/4 mg/m3 TWA; 2 ppm/8 mg/m3 STEL, a potential occupational carcinogen. Limit exposure to lowest feasible concentration. See NIOSH Pocket Guide, Appendix A

ACGIH TLV®[1]: 10 ppm, not classifiable as a human carcinogen as chloroethanes

Protective Action Criteria (PAC) Ver. 27[89]

PAC-1: 50E ppm

PAC-2: 200E ppm

PAC-3: 300E ppm

PAC values marked with a subscript “E" correspond to ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) values and are in bold face.

DFG MAK: [skin] Carcinogen Category 2

Determination in Air

Charcoal adsorption, workup with CS2, analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization. See NIOSH IV, Method #1003 for halogenated hydrocarbons[18]

Permissible Concentration in Water

Federal Drinking Water Guidelines: 4 ppb[93]

Determination in Water

Inert gas purge followed by chromatography with halide-specific detection (EPA Method 601) or gas chromatography plus mass spectrometry (EPA Method 624). Log Kow = < 1.5. Unlikely to bioaccumulate in marine organisms.

Routes of Entry

Inhalation of vapor, skin absorption of liquid, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact

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Interface influence of materials and surface modifications

Neetu Israni, Srividya Shivakumar, in Fundamental Biomaterials: Metals, 2018 Other graft functionalizations

Hydroxylated PHAs could also be modified to acrylated forms via coupling with acryloyl chloride in this presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) as a solvent. PHA-grafted-branched poly(ethyleneimine) PEI copolymers (PHA-g-bPEI) were synthesized by Michael addition between acrylated monomethoxy-PHA (mPHA-acrylated) and branched PEI. Owing to the hydrophilic nature and positive charge of PEI, the resultant P3/4HB-g-bPEI copolymer was soluble in the buffer solutions and also had a net positive surface charge. The copolymer was tested as nanocarriers delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy [97].

Babinot et al. employed click chemistry for the synthesis of amphiphilic scl and mcl PHAs-b- poly(ethylene glycol) (PHAs-b-PEG) diblock copolymers. For this, first, using thermal treatment length controlled oligomers of hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), and poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHOHHx) containing a carboxylic acid end group were obtained. Second, quantitative propargylamine functionalization of the carboxylic end-groups was achieved by click ligation resulting in a clickable-alkyne group [55]. Azide-functionalized PEG was prepared using methanesulfonyl chloride (MsCl) and sodium azide. Finally, to achieve copolymers preparation, the copper (I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) was used, which has been proven to be a very efficient reaction in the ligation of azide and alkyne terminated preformed blocks or oligomers. Well-defined diblock copolymers were obtained up to 93% yield [56].

Thus, by and large the surface modification strategies assist in the generation of amphiphilic PHAs from swollen to soluble in aqueous environment, for various biomedical applications. Forthcoming section discusses the applications of PHAs as biomaterials in various medical fields.

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James G. Speight PhD, DSc, PhD, in Handbook of Industrial Hydrocarbon Processes (Second Edition), 2020

3.2 Halogenation

Generally, at ordinary temperatures, chlorine reacts with olefin derivatives by addition. Thus, ethylene is chlorinated to 1,2-dichloroethane (dichloroethane) or to ethylene dichloride:

H2CCH2 + Cl2 → H2ClCCH2Cl

There are some minor uses for ethylene dichloride, but approximately 90% of it is cracked to vinyl chloride, the monomer of polyvinyl chloride (PVC):

H2ClCCH2Cl → HCl + H2CCHCl

At slightly higher temperatures, olefin derivatives and chlorine react by substitution of a hydrogen atom by a chlorine atom. Thus, in the chlorination of propylene, a rise of 50°C (90°F) changes the product from propylene dichloride [CH3CH(Cl)CH2Cl] to allyl chloride (CH2CHCH2Cl).

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Mip Synthesis, Characteristics and Analytical Application

Marcin WłochJanusz Datta, in Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 2019

2.4 Porogen agents

Porogenic solvents act as reaction media (in the polymerisation process) and pore-forming agents. The most important porogens are acetonitrile, chloroform, dichloroethane, N,N-dimethylformamide, methanol, 2-methoxyethanol, tetrahydrofuran and toluene. For the non-covalent imprinting method non-polar and less polar solvents are used. The type of used solvent affects the imprinting efficiency, interaction between the template and functional monomers, absorption properties and morphology of polymers. The increasing amount of solvent used result in increasing of pores size, so proper amount of solvent will improve formation of specific cavities designed for binding template molecules. It should be also pointed out, the nature of used solvent plays also important role. Less polar solvents improve formation of functional monomer-template complexes (stabilization of hydrogen bonds), while the more polar solvent disturbing interactions in the formed complexes, so presence of water is impossible in many protocols [3,25].

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Nanoscale Electrochemistry

Xiang Wang, ... Michael V. Mirkin, in Frontiers of Nanoscience, 2021

4.6.2 SECM imaging with nano-ITIES-based tips

IT processes at nanopipette-supported ITIES tips have been used for nanoscale topography and reactivity imaging of various samples. A 103 nm radius pipette filled with DCE solution was scanned at a constant height over an IBM silicon wafer fabricated with the 90 nm process technology [124]. In negative feedback mode, the tip current produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA+) transfer from the external aqueous solution was blocked by the solid substrate. Approximately 10 nm high topographic features on the substrate surface were clearly resolved in the resultant image. The sharp nanopipette tip had a small RG (~ 1.5) and could be scanned over the nonflat surface features without crashing.

A much smaller nanopipette (17 nm radius) was used by Shen et al. [92] for high-resolution imaging of ionic fluxes through a porous nanocrystalline silicon membrane (Fig. 4.34). The DCE-filled pipette was scanned over the membrane surface in an aqueous solution containing tetrabutylammonium cations (TBA+). The tip current due to the transfer of TBA+ across the nano-ITIES was blocked by the impermeable regions of the membrane (negative feedback). A significantly higher iT was measured when the tip was scanned above a nanopore that did not block the TBA+ diffusion. Spatial resolution was increased by maintaining a very short distance between the pipette tip and the membrane (d  1.3 nm) during the imaging. Such a short separation distance was made possible by elimination of thermal drift, achieved by performing SECM imaging inside an isothermal chamber (see Section 4.3.5). This approach allowed the authors to confidently resolve the nanopores despite their high surface number density (93 pores/μm2). The number density and dimensions of the nanopores extracted from the SECM image were consistent with the values determined by TEM (Fig. 4.34a).

Fig. 4.34. (a) TEM and (b) SECM images of a porous nanocrystalline Si membrane.

Reprinted with permission from M. Shen, R. Ishimatsu, J. Kim, S. Amemiya, Quantitative imaging of ion transport through single nanopores by high-resolution scanning electrochemical microscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 9856–9859.Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society

The same group carried out detailed characterization of nanopipette tips by TEM and found a significant tip roughness (∼ 5 nm roughness for a  30 nm diameter pipette) [166]. The IT current measured at the ITIES supported by a rough nanopipette was higher than expected for a 30 nm diameter disk tip, indicating that the ITIES is sphere-cap-shaped. However, finite-element simulations suggested that the spatial resolution of SECM imaging of nanopores should not be significantly affected by the sphere-cap shape of the tip and is mainly determined by the tip radius. The authors pointed out that sphere-cap tips have an advantage over flush disk tips whose insulating sheath could contact the substrate and limits the attainable closest tip  substrate separation distance. This advantage should be less significant for pipette-based tips with a small RG value. SECM images of a periodic array of 100 nm nanopores obtained using nanopipette tips were compared with TEM images of the same array. The circular pores appear to be elongated along the direction of the tip scan, in agreement with the finite-element simulation of SECM images.

In electron transfer/ion transfer (ET/IT)-mode SECM experiments with nanopipette-supported ITIES tips, two charge-transfer mediators were used to implement simultaneous topography and reactivity imaging [131]. A neutral redox species (ferrocenedimethanol, FDM) partitioned from the inner DCE solution to the outer aqueous phase, and its oxidation at the conductive substrate was used for surface reactivity mapping, while the IT of aqueous PF6 across the nano-ITIES allowed for topography imaging in negative feedback mode (Fig. 4.35a–b). The imaged sample was a portion of a 12.5 μm radius Pt disk substrate embedded in glass, including the Pt/glass boundary (Fig. 4.35c–d). Because the IT feedback was negative over both Pt and glass surfaces, constant-current topography imaging could be performed; the vertical position of the tip (z-coordinate) was dynamically adjusted by means of a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) loop controller to maintain the constant iT value. Thus, the separation distance was essentially constant, yielding a topographic image of the substrate (z-coordinate vs x-y position of the tip; Fig. 4.35c). The well-polished substrate appears flat at the nanoscale and does not show any topographic features at the Pt/glass boundary (a small variation in z between the lower-left and upper-right corners of the image is due to the minor tilt of the substrate). The current due to FDM oxidation at the substrate recorded simultaneously represents a reactivity map with clearly visible differences between Pt and glass portions of the surface (Fig. 4.35d). Since the tip–substrate distance was maintained constant, the reactivity image is not affected by the topography and tilt of the substrate surface. A surface reactivity map could also be obtained by recording the IT tip current at a negative pipette potential at which the FDM+ (but not PF6) was transferred from water to DCE (Fig. 4.35b) [131].

Fig. 4.35. ET/IT mode of SECM. Schematic representation of (a) topography imaging via negative IT feedback and (b) surface reactivity mapping with FDM redox mediator. (c) Constant-current topography image and (d) reactivity map of the same portion of the substrate were obtained with a 270 nm pipette tip. The scan rate was 500 nm/s. DCE filling solution contained 26 mM FDM. External aqueous solution contained 0.46 mM LiPF6. ES = 400 mV; ET = 200 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The substrate was a 12.5 mm radius glass-sealed, polished Pt disk.

Reprinted with permission from Y. Wang, K. Kececi, J. Velmurugan, M.V. Mirkin, Electron transfer/ion transfer mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM): a new tool for imaging and kinetic studies, Chem. Sci. 4 (2013) 3606–3616.Copyright © 2013 Royal Society of Chemistry
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Biotechnologies for improving indoor air quality

G. Soreanu, in Start-Up Creation, 2016 Mixed volatile organic compound removal

A microbial membrane bioreactor investigated by van Ras et al. (2005) was able to reduce VOCs such as chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, alcohols, methane, acetone, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), at an elimination capacity of 2–26 g/m3/h for inlet contaminant concentrations of 20–200 mg/m3 and retention times of 8–23 s. The bioreactor showed an operational stability up to a year and its performance was not affected by long starvation or microgravity. A plant membrane bioreactor prototype was also able to significantly reduce the level of methylethylketone and toluene from an air stream, which was considered sufficient by van Ras et al. (2005) to demonstrate the proof of concept.

The role of microorganisms in plant bioreactors treating VOCs was investigated by Russell et al. (2014) at Drexel University, where a five-story vertical biowall was installed. The biowall is a PBTF equipped with plants rooted into an inorganic, porous textile material. The plant roots are continuously irrigated with recirculated nutrient solution. The indoor air is drawn through the wall using a fan, allowing the VOCs to transfer from air to the liquid, where they are subject to biodegradation by microorganisms. The treated air is then delivered to other zones in the building via the mechanical system. VOCs removal efficiency of about 25–90% can be obtained in such a biosystem. The following plants have been monitored: Croton “Mammy”, Ficus elastica (rubber tree), Schefflera arboricola “Gold Capella”, S. arboricola, unknown Ficus sp. and Algerian ivy. The biowall-grown roots exhibited enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobioum, which are VOCs degraders that are able to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds as often found in indoor environments. According to these authors, these bacteria play an essential role in VOC removal in plant bioreactors treating indoor air. The proof of the PBTF concept has been previously reported by Darlington et al. (2000, 2001) and Darlington (2004) and summarized by Soreanu et al. (2013). Similarly, a vertical planted cylinder equipped with hydroponic plants and trickled with nutrient-rich water was recently investigated within a European project (CETIEB report). This biosystem was able to reduce the VOC level by 50% in a registrar's office at the University of Stuttgart.

A BTF with a diameter of 9 cm, height of 100 cm, and equipped with pottery pieces was tested by Lu et al. (2010) for VOC removal from the indoor air of a newly renovated room. The BTF was inoculated with sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant and operated at a gas flow rate of 600 L/h, surface liquid velocity of 3.14 m/h, pH of 6–7 and temperature of 30°C. When the air stream contained 0–6.5 mg/m3 formaldehyde, 2.2–46.7 mg/m3 benzene, 0.5–28.2 mg/m3 toluene, and 4.1–59.0 mg/m3 xylene, the VOC removal efficiency was about 100%, 65–70%, 93%, and 85–90%, respectively. The treated air can be recirculated to the room. The following bacterial species isolated from BTF have been associated with this performance: Pseudomonas sp., Kocuria sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. Increasing the temperature up to 40°C resulted in a decrease of BTF performance by about 1.3 for all VOCs except formaldehyde, for which degradation was attributed to the thermotolerant bacteria. The better performance in formaldehyde removal was explained by its higher solubility in water in comparison with the other tested hydrophobic compounds.

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