Richard P. Pohanish, in Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), 2015
1,2-Bichloroethane; Dichloremulsion; Di-chlor-mulsion; α,β-Dichloroethane; sym-Dichloroethane; 1,2-Dichloroethane; Dichloroethylene; 1,2-Dicloroetano (Spanish); EDC; ENT 1,656; Ethane, 1,2-dichloro-; Ethane dichloride; Ethylene chloride; 1,2-Ethylene dichloride; Freon 150; Glycol dichloride; NCI-C00511
BORER SOL®; BROCIDE®; DESTRUXOL BORER-SOL®; DOWFUME®[C]; DUTCH LIQUID®; DUTCH OIL®
California DPR Chemical Code
UN/NA & ERG Number
203-458-1 [Annex I Index No.: 602-012-00-7]
Not approved for use in EU countries. Not registered for use in the U.S. When mixed with carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride is used as a grain fumigant for bulk storage in bags, sealed containers, bins or on floors. In recent years, 1,2-dichloroethane has found wide use in the manufacture of ethylene glycol, diaminoethylene, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, viscose rayon, styrenebutadiene rubber, and various plastics. It is a solvent for resins, asphalt, bitumen, rubber, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester, and paint; a degreaser in the engineering, textile and petroleum industries; and an extracting agent for soybean oil and caffeine. It is also used as an antiknock agent in gasoline, a pickling agent and a dry-cleaning agent. It has found use in photography, xerography, water softening, and also in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and varnishes.
U.S. Maximum Allowable Residue Levels for Fumigants, including ethylene dichloride [40 CFR 193.225, 180.521, 180.522]
grain, cereal, milled fractions 125 ppm; corn, field, grits 125 ppm; rice, cracked 125 ppm.
Regulatory Authority and Advisory Information
Carcinogenicity: IARC: Animal Sufficient Evidence; Human Inadequate Evidence, possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2b, 1999; EPA: Sufficient evidence from animal studies; inadequate evidence or no useful data from epidemiologic studies; NTP: 12th Report on Carcinogens, 2011: Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen; NIOSH: Potential occupational carcinogen
California Proposition 65 Chemical: Cancer (1/1/1987)
Health Advisory: Mutagen, Developmental/Reproductive Toxin, Skin irritant/sensitizer
Clean Air Act: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Title I, Part A, Section 112)
Clean Water Act: Section 311 Hazardous Substances/RQ 40CFR117.3 (same as CERCLA, see below); 40CFR423, appendix A, Priority Pollutants; Section 313 Water Priority Chemicals (57FR41331, 9/9/92); Toxic Pollutant (Section 401.15)
U.S. EPA Hazardous Waste Number (RCRA No.): U077, D028
RCRA Toxicity Characteristic (Section 261.24), Maximum Concentration of Contaminants, regulatory level, 0.5 mg/L
RCRA 40CFR268.48; 61FR15654, Universal Treatment Standards: Wastewater (mg/L), 0.21; Non-wastewater (mg/kg), 6.0
RCRA 40CFR264, appendix 9; TSD Facilities Ground Water Monitoring List. Suggested test method(s) (PQL μg/L): 8010 (0.5); 8240 (5)
Safe Drinking Water Act: MCL, 0.005 mg/L; MCLG, zero; Regulated chemical (47 FR 9352)
CERCLA Reportable Quantity (RQ): 100 lb (45.4 kg)
US DOT Regulated Marine Pollutant (49CFR172.101, appendix B)
US DOT 49CFR172.101, Inhalation Hazardous Chemical
Rotterdam Convention Annex III [Chemicals Subject to the Prior Informed Consent Procedure (PIC)]
European/International Regulations: Hazard Symbol: F, T; risk phrases: R45; F11; R22-36/37/38; safety phrases: S2; S53; S45 (see Appendix 1)
WGK (German Aquatic Hazard Class): 3-Severe hazard to waters
1,2-Dichloroethane is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid. A pleasant, chloroform-like odor, and a sweet taste. Decomposes slowly: turns dark and acidic on contact with air, moisture, and light. The Odor Threshold is 100 ppm. Molecular weight = 98.96; Specific gravity (H2O:1) = 1.245; Boiling point = 83.5°C; Freezing/Melting point = –35.7°C; Vapor pressure = 75 mmHg @ 23.70°C; Flash point = 13.33°C (cc); Autoignition temperature = 413°C. Explosive limits: LEL = 6.2%; UEL = 16.0%. Hazard Identification (based on NFPA-704 M Rating System): Health 2, Flammability 3, Reactivity 0. Soluble in water; solubility = 0.869 g/100 mL @ 20°C.
Forms explosive mixture with air. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers and caustics; chemically active metals such as magnesium or aluminum powder, sodium and potassium, alkali metals, alkali amides; liquid ammonia. Decomposes to vinyl chloride and HCl above 600°C. Attacks plastics, rubber, coatings. Attacks many metals in presence of water.
Permissible Exposure Limits in Air
Conversion factor: 1 ppm = 4.05 mg/m3 @ 25°C & 1 atm
NIOSH IDLH: 50 ppm; a potential human carcinogen.
OSHA PEL: 50 ppm TWA; 100 ppm Ceiling Concentration; 200 ppm [5 minute maximum peak in any 3 hours]. For Construction and Shipyards: 50 ppm/200 mg/m3 TWA
NIOSH REL: 1 ppm/4 mg/m3 TWA; 2 ppm/8 mg/m3 STEL, a potential occupational carcinogen. Limit exposure to lowest feasible concentration. See NIOSH Pocket Guide, Appendix A
ACGIH TLV®: 10 ppm, not classifiable as a human carcinogen as chloroethanes
Protective Action Criteria (PAC) Ver. 27
PAC-1: 50E ppm
PAC-2: 200E ppm
PAC-3: 300E ppm
PAC values marked with a subscript “E" correspond to ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) values and are in bold face.
DFG MAK: [skin] Carcinogen Category 2
Determination in Air
Charcoal adsorption, workup with CS2, analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization. See NIOSH IV, Method #1003 for halogenated hydrocarbons
Permissible Concentration in Water
Federal Drinking Water Guidelines: 4 ppb
Determination in Water
Inert gas purge followed by chromatography with halide-specific detection (EPA Method 601) or gas chromatography plus mass spectrometry (EPA Method 624). Log Kow = < 1.5. Unlikely to bioaccumulate in marine organisms.
Routes of Entry
Inhalation of vapor, skin absorption of liquid, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact